Sunday, June 7, 2020
Work Measurement on Katsa Bag Production (Gifts and Graces: Cainta, Rizal) I. Rationale Environmental issues and problems started to arise last decade. Awareness and drive to solve these problems has grown to 89% (NIHERST, 2008) sinceÃ 2008. This has resulted to different campaigns and movements such as the Earth Hour Campaign, where everyone is encouraged to switch off household lights for an hour and the birth of eco-friendly products into the market. One of the most in demand and popular eco-friendly products is the cloth or katsa bags. Several big companies such as RustanÃ¢â¬â¢s and SM have invested and promoted the use of this product not only because of its earth friendly feature but also due to the convenience and cost-saving advantage it gives to them and to their customers. Katsa bags have widened its range of usability. Before it is only used when people go to wet markets. Now, it is seen and used not only in supermarkets but in high end malls and places as well. Wit h the continuous expansion of its market and increasing demand,Ã production of katsa bags is now seenÃ as a critical process as its production cost and market value is now a concern of the public. II. Problem Statement Without an existing time standard for the production of katsa bags, the management allocates extensive time allowance for the completion of job orders. This results to excessive avoidable delays taken by the workers. III. Objectives This study is an application of the theories learned in the IE32: Methods Engineering Class. It aims to utilize the problem solving toolsÃ and work measurement techniquesÃ discussed in the course. Moreover, this study intends to help Tahanang Walang Hagdanan by accomplishing the following specific objectives: * To improve the productivity and efficiency of Tahanan Walang Hagdanans katsa bag productionÃ * To determine the time standard for producing a katsa bag using time study * To improve systems and procedures for select ed processes IV. Scope and Limitations PRODUCT SCOPE The study focuses on the processes involve in the manufacturing of Tahanang Walang Hagdanans katsa bags. Since there are different varieties of katsa bags, production of Antipolo katsa bags will be the premiere focus. TIME STANDARD SCOPE Even though Antipolo katsa bag production will be observed in this study, standard time for all the all other processes except silkscreening will be applicable for other katsa bag variety with the same dimensions. Silkscreening is the source of variation as different imprints are processed in different durations. SILKSCREEN PROCESS LIMITATION Different customers require different imprints on the katsa bags. The time it takes to produce patterns differ depending on the number of colors that will be seen on the imprint. A pattern can be reused once it has been created. Returning customers with the same imprint design do not need to be prepared a new silkscreen template. Since Antipolo katsa ba g is a returning customer, creation of the silkscreen template will not be observed by this study. V. Methodology The group conducted visits to the actual site of katsa bag production in Cainta. Interviews with the operations director, Lita Evangelista, marketing officer, Lolit Tuazon and sewing department supervisor, Leizel Tabocolde, were done every visit to familiarize the process and to be aware of the problems that they encounter. The actual operators were also asked about their assigned tasks. Basic questions such as how the processes are done, how many operators are involved in the assembly and the like were asked to give the researchers a background on the nature of making katsa bags. Familiarization of the process was done before conducting an actual time study on the operators. The current system was documented by means of flowcharting. Moreover, problem solving tools were used to identify the sources of production inefficiencies and to recognize where to focus in solvi ng the above mentioned problem. Time study was the work measurement tool used to determine the standard time for producing a bag. Through this, the time required for an operator to carry out a specific process was obtained at a defined rate of performance. the group also took into consideration the working conditions during the actual observation and see how these affects the workers performance. VI. Project Documentation COMPANY BACKGROUND Tahanang Walang Hagdanan Inc. is a center that equips the disabled with skills and knowledge for their integration into the mainstream of the society. People in this center are trained in different fields such as metalcraft, woodcraft, needlecraft, information technology, paper-making and packaging. The products produced by these trained workers are sold to local distributors and exported abroad. Tahanang Walang Hagdanan, providing different services and merchandise, is divided into different departments. One of these is the sewing departme nt. Here, different kinds of bags, graduation caps, and doll caps are produced. One of the kinds of bags created in this section is called a katsa bag, also known as eco friendly bag. PROCESS FLOW The production of katsa bag begins by simultaneously preparing the strap and the body of the bag. The strap is prepared by one of the operators by cutting it to its proper length (123 inches) and burning the edges with the use of a candle. Three straps can be produced in one cycle while a strapÃ¢â¬â¢s edge is burned on at a time. The body of the bag is simultaneously done with the straps. Preparing the body of the bag can be broken down into 3 sub-processes. First, 3 people layout the fabric for both the main body and the bagÃ¢â¬â¢s sidings. For the main body, the katsa cloth is folded several times until it reaches a pile of 25Ã cloths (Figure 1). One fold measures 87 inches in length. The same process is done for the sidings of the bag but this time, the fabric is folded at 8 5 inches. After layout, the body and siding patterns are traced on the topmost fabric. Four bodies can be produced from an 87-inch fold while twenty sidings are created for the 85-inch fold. Lastly, the fabric is cut by one of the three workers using the cutting machine while the fabric is held in place by the other two (Figure 2). Figure 1. Workers Layout Katsa Cloth Figure 2. Cutting Katsa Cloth for Body The body of the bag is thenÃ silkscreened (Figure 3). The main silkscreen process is done by only a disabled person who consequently has limited movements. For efficiency purposes, assistance is provided to the main operator in the arranging of the printed cloths. Since the bag has two different designs for each side, the printing of the first design on one side is finished first before moving on to the other design. After doing the first print, the fabric is placed on top of a board with an adhesive by a helper. The adhesion of the cloth to the board or wood plate is done in order to maintain alignment of the pattern and print when the second color of a design is imprinted. Given that the second design of this model of katsa bag requires two colors, the first color is applied first before proceeding to the next one. Meanwhile,Ã the ends of the 123-inch strap are sewn together (Figure 4). Markings are also placed on the middle of the strap for alignment purposes. Meanwhile,Ã the ends of the 123-inch strap are sewn together (Figure 4). Markings are also placed on the middle of the strap for alignment purposes. When the print on the cloth is dry, markings are drawn on it to identify the spot where the strap is going to be placed (Figure 5). After the strap and body preparations, a running stitch using a high speed machine is done to connect the strap to the body (Figure 6). Once it is done, the sidings are sewn together with the body creating the actual form of the bag. Following this step is the serging of the edges of the fabric using the edgi ng machine (Figure 7). Since the stitches are performed on the wrong side of the fabric, the bags are then inverted and the sides are marked in preparation of making the hemline. The final stitches on the side are made. Figure 6. Sewing the Strap and Body Together Figure 5. Drawing Markings on the Body Figure 7. Serging of Edges For the finishing touches, the bag is trimmed and checked for defects. Once it has already passed quality control, it is now ready to be packed and be delivered to the customer. The complete process flow of katsa bag production is described in the flowchart below (Figure 8). Figure 8. Process Flowchart of Katsa Bag Production WORK DISTRIBUTION | LTC| Silkscreen| Prep| Sew| Finish| Layout| Trace| Cut| 1st Coat (1)| Install| 1st Coat (2)| 2ns Coat (2)| Remove| Cut| Burn| Connect| Mark| mark| Attach| RS| Werge| Invert| Mark| Fold/Hem| Trim| Pack| 1| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 2| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 3| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 4| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 5| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 6| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 7| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 8| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 9| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 10| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 11| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 12| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 13| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 14| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 15| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 16| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Table 1. Work Distribution The ne edlecraft department of Tahanang Walang Hagdanan is composed of 16 employees. The table above shows the specific work assigned to each worker. This was only based on how the supervisor, Ms. Leizel Tabocolde described her staff. The layout, trace and cut process are done by four people as a group. After these processes are complete, two of them proceed to sewing while the other two have nothing left to do. In the silkscreen process, one person does the main procedure of coating while two assists him with the other sub-steps. After printing, the preparation of the strap, siding and body is done before sewing them together. The majority of the processes in this stage is assigned to a single person. For the sewing part, a total of 11 out of the 16 employees work since 11 hi speed machines are available in the department. Furthermore, only one person does the edging despite the availability of two machines because she is the only one skilled to use it. To illustrate more clearly the w ork distribution of the 16 workers, a pie chart was used (Figure 9). Each number described in the legend is a specific worker. It can be observed from this chart that half of the complete process is done by only five workers. Moreover, 8 workers are assigned to work on a quarter of the whole production. Table 2 shows the actual work percentage of each worker. Figure 9. Work Distribution Pie Chart worker| Work distribution percentage| 1| 0. 086207| 2| 0. 086207| | 0. 051724| 4| 0. 051724| 5| 0. 051724| 6| 0. 034483| 7| 0. 034483| 8| 0. 086207| 9| 0. 068966| 10| 0. 068966| 11| 0. 068966| 12| 0. 068966| 13| 0. 068966| 14| 0. 068966| 15| 0. 068966| 16| 0. 034483| Table 2. Work Distribution Percentage VII. Work Measurement Results and Analysis After familiarization of the katsa bag process, the group used the time study method to gather information for the evaluation of the katsa bag operation and to establish time standards. The snapback method was used in timing each of the processes i dentified in the flowchart (Figure 8). The processes were identified with the help of THWÃ¢â¬â¢s sewing department supervisor. The time study observation form found in the appendix shows the data gathered from the examination. For the determination of sample size, the group used the recommended sample size from NiebelÃ¢â¬â¢s Methods, Standards, and Work Design book. The book states that for an operation with _____ cycle time ____ cycles are enough. For this reason, ___ cycles were used in the study. Five cycles were taken for each of the following processes: layout, trace, cut (LTC). On the other hand 10 cycles were taken for the remaining processes. Only five observations were taken for LCT because the workers can produce approximately 100 units of the bag during these processes. The allowances for personal needs, basic fatigue, variable fatigue, and special allowances were also taken from the recommended allowance from the NiebelÃ¢â¬â¢s book. These allowances were give n to normal operations. *add duration of time study *add how we got performance rating EFFICIENT BUT NOT PRODUCTIVE Table X shows the summary of the results from the time study that was conducted. Based on the table, each process is performed efficiently by the worker. However during company visits wherein the researchers observed for almost the whole working day, the group observed that even at this efficiency the workers werenÃ¢â¬â¢t productive. When the operator starts working on her assigned tasks, she finishes it quickly. However, production time was lengthened/prolonged due to observed avoidable delays. During the period where the processes were timed, the workers performed the tasks continuously but after a while some of the workers didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have tasks to accomplish. Process| | | % efficiency| | Layout (body)| 256| 241. 304| 94. 259| 5. 741| Trace (Body)| 146| 141. 848| 97. 156| 2. 844| Cut (Body)| 2044| 2034. 312| 99. 526| . 474| Layout (Side)| 219| 218. 568| 99. 8 03| . 197| Trace (Side)| 132| 128. 688| 97. 491| 2. 509| Cut (Side)| 567| 564. 144| 99. 496| . 504| First Coating (side 1)| 99| 98. 952| 99. 952| . 048| Katsa Installation on Plate| 203| 203. 112| 100. 055| -. 055| First Coating (side 2)| 98| 97. 272| 99. 257| . 743| Second Coating (side 2)| 87| 88. 256| 101. 444| -1. 444| Katsa Removal from Plate| 69| 67. 816| 98. 284| 1. 716| Cut| 141| 140. 56| 99. 330| . 670| Burn Edges| 23| 22. 960| 99. 826| . 174| Connect Ends/Mark| 268| 266. 224| 99. 337| . 663| Marking Body| 1660| 1630. 944| 98. 250| 1. 750| Mark Sidings| 265| 256. 984| 96. 975| 3. 025| Attach Strap| 1686| 1684. 760| 99. 926| . 074| Running Stitch| 1291| 1280. 496| 99. 186| . 814| Serge Side| 459| 451. 696| 98. 409| 1. 591| Invert| 85| 89. 488| 105. 280| -5. 280| Mark Side| 262| 255. 640| 97. 573| 2. 427| Fold/Hem| 1105| 1104. 208| 99. 928| . 072| Top Stitch| 1422| 1415. 400| 99. 536| . 464| Trim| 2483| 2481. 976| 99. 959| . 041| Pack| 505| 497. 784| 98. 571| 1. 429| STREAM D IAGNOSTIC CHART| Man| Method| Management| Overtime Last minute production High idle time Undermanned Processes Low quality control Excessive avoidable delays Hiring of extra workers Extended production process | | | Following the flow of the cause and effect arrows in the stream diagnostic chart (Figure 10), it can be observed that the most number of outgoing arrows comes from excessive avoidable delays. This indicates that having too many avoidable interruptions in the method of making katsa bags causes majority of the problems. The presence of too much avoidable delays causes the high idle time of workers. This consequently leads to last minute production for meeting their customerÃ¢â¬â¢s deadlines. Moreover, cramming the production of the bags causes the employees to work overtime and this in turn will be the reason for low quality control; since while chasing their deadline, it is highly probable that their skill of making the bags will be of poorer quality. Because of t he existence of these problems, one of the actions taken by the management is the hiring of extra workers which just adds to labor cost. Furthermore, extension of the production process is also a step done by the management as an effect of excessive avoidable delays. From the stream diagnostic chart, it was identified that the main problem in the production of the katsa bags is too much avoidable delays. The root causes of this problem were determined using the ishikawa diagram above. There are three main categories in which these factors fall under: management, human and methods. I. Management a. Extensive allowances for production process The management treats the normal? workers the same way they do with the disabled workers thus giving them extra allowances. b. Lack of supervision c. Improper work distribution The weights of work of workers are not evenly distributed. Some workers have too many tasks as compared to their co-workers. d. Lack of policies In the current system, there no? are strict policies regarding proper work execution and time management. e. Ineffective scheduling II. Human f. Lack of discipline During work hours, the workers are continuously communicating with each other. g. Lack of responsibility During the entire production process for a specific job order, there are workers who do not go to work for several days and just work during crunch time. (there are workers who do not go to work for several days and who just works when the deadline is near) III. Methods h. No standard time per process Workers are free to carry out their work on their own paces as they finish the required job orders. i. Undermanned stations With uneven work distributions, there are processes that lack manpower j. Processes not performed continuously Since the allowances given are too much, workers tend to stop every now and then to take a break even if a task in not yet done k. Dependent on the available number of workers Not all the workers go to work all the time thus the number of processes performed are limited to the ability and number of those who came. Insert Pareto chart Figure 13. Gantt Chart The gantt chart (Figure 13) is used to give an overview of the tasks that should be done simultaneously. Moreover, it shows which among these processes have relative short and long processing times. The time index used is neither the conventional hours of a day nor days of a week. Instead, the time index in Figure 13 is the fraction of minutes of a single cycle. This is because Tahanan Walang Hagdanan does not follow a standardized scheduling of work. Workers and operators start their workday based on the unfinished task the previous day. Based on the gantt chart, preliminary processes of the cloth and strap are independent of each other as they can be performed without the output of the other. Folding of the layout and tracing, cutting, silk-screening and marking of the cloth should be done at the same time with cutting, edge bur ning, stitching and marking of the strap. Ensuring that these processes are performed in order avoids delays and pile up of unwanted inventory. Delays are probable to happen if succeeding processes do not occur because of unfinished outputs from the succeeding processes. This will also cause idle time for the workers of the succeeding processes as they will have no material no work on. Moreover, pile up of unwanted inventory will happen if either of the two preparatory processes is not executed on time. This will cause an additional liability since there will be a need to temporary store these inventory. Furthermore, evident in the gantt chart as well is the short processing time involving the inverting of the bag. This process is done by another operator different from the operator from the preceding and succeeding processes. This is a potential area of improvement as this process can be merged to either the preceding or succeeding process. Difficulty of performing this task is at minimum as no specialization and training is needed to complete it. Implementation Plan Figure X shows the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s suggested implementation plan if the recommendations were to be carried out by Tahanang Walang Hagdanan. APPENDIX LTC Time Study Observation Form| Study No: 1| Date: March 11, 2010| Page: 1 of 2| | Operation: LTC| Operator:| Observer:| Element No. and Description| Layout (Body)| Trace (Body)| Cut (Body)| Layout (Side)| | | | | | Note | Cycle| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| Ã | 1| 80%| Ã | 53| 42. 4| 95%| Ã | 27| 25. 65| 90%| Ã | 400| 360| 75%| Ã | 52| 39| Ã | 2| 90%| Ã | 47| 42. 3| 75%| Ã | 34| 25. 5| 90%| Ã | 415| 373. 5| 90%| Ã | 43| 38. 7| Ã | 3| 100%| Ã | 44| 44| 105%| Ã | 24| 25. 2| 85%| Ã | 422| 358. 7| 90%| Ã | 44| 39. 6| Ã | 4| 75%| Ã | 57| 42. 75| 85%| Ã | 30| 25. 5| 95%| Ã | 382| 362. | 95%| Ã | 43| 40. 85| Ã | 5| 80%| Ã | 55| 44| 80%| Ã | 31| 24. 8| 85%| Ã | 425| 361. 3| 100 %| Ã | 37| 37| Ã | 6| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 7| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 8| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 9| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 10| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | | Ã | Summary| Total OT| 256| 146| 2044| 219| Rating| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total NT| 215. 45| 126. 65| 1816. 35| 195. 15| No. Observations| 5| 5| 5| 5| Average NT| 43. 09| 25. 33| 363. 27| 39. 03| % Allowance| 12%| 12%| 12%| 12%| Elemental Std. Time| 48. 2608| 28. 3696| 406. 8624| 43. 7136| No. f Occurences| 5| 5| 5| 5| Standard Time| 241. 304| 141. 848| 2034. 312| 218. 568| Total Standard Time (sum standard time for all elements):| 3329| Foreign Elements| Time Check| Allowance Summary| Sym| W1| W2| OT| Description| Finishing Time| 2:32:50 PM| Personal Needs| 3| A| 0| 5| 5| checked| Starting Time| 1:35:50 PM| Basic Fatigue| 2| B| 0| 3| 3| stopped| Elapsed Time| 57 mins| Variable Fatigue| 3| C| 0| 3| 3| stuck| TEBS| 0. 3| Ã | Special| 1| D| 0| 6| 6| checked| TEAF| 0. 3| | Total Allowance| 9| E| 0| 4| 4| stuck| Total Check Time| 0. 6| | Remarks:| F| 0| 3| 3| checked| Effective Time| 3364| | | G| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ineffective Time| 24| | | H| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Recorded Time| 3388| | I| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Unaccounted Time| 0| | J| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Recording Error %| Ã | | Rating Check| Ã | | Synthetic Time| Ã | Ã | | | Observed Time| Ã | | | | Time Study Observation Form| Study No: 1| Date:| Page: 2 of 2| | Operation: LTC| Operator:| Observer| Element No. and Description| Trace (Side)| Cut (Side)| Ã | Ã | | | | | | Note | Cycle| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| Ã | 1| 95%| Ã | 24| 22. 8| 90%| Ã | 114| 102. 6| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 2| 100%| Ã | 23| 23| 95%| Ã | 104| 98. 8| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 3| 80%| Ã | 29| 23. 2| 85%| Ã | 116| 98. 6| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 4| 90%| Ã | 26| 23. | 85%| Ã | 120| 102| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 5| 75%| Ã | 30| 22. 5| 90%| Ã | 113| 101. 7| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 6| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 7| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 8| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 9| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 10| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Summary| Total OT| 132| 567| Ã | Ã | Rating| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total NT| 114. 9| 503. 7| Ã | Ã | No. Observations| 5| 5| Ã | Ã | Average NT| 22. 98| 100. 74| Ã | Ã | % Allowance| 12%| 12%| Ã | Ã | Elemental Std. Time| 25. 7376| 112. 8288| Ã | Ã | No. of Occurences| 5| 5| Ã | Ã | Standard Time| 128. 688| 564. 144| Ã | Ã | Total Standard Time (sum standard time for all elements):| Ã | Ã | Foreign Elements| Time Check| Allowance Summary| Sym| W1| W2| OT| Description| Finishing Time| Ã | Personal Needs| Ã | A| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Starting Time| Ã | Basic Fatigue| Ã | B| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Elapsed Time| Ã | Variable Fatigue| Ã | C| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | TEBS| Ã | Ã | Special| Ã | D| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | TEAF| Ã | | Total Allowance| Ã | E| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Check Time| Ã | | Remarks:| F| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Effective Time| Ã | | | G| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | In effective Time| Ã | | | H| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Recorded Time| Ã | | I| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Unaccounted Time| Ã | | J| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Recording Error %| Ã | | Rating Check| Ã | | Synthetic Time| Ã | Ã | | | Observed Time| Ã | | | | Silkscreen Time Study Observation Form| Study No: 1| Date: March 12, 2010| Page: 1 of 2| | Operation: Silkscreening| Operator:| Observer| Element No. and Description| First Coating (side 1)| Katsa Installation on Plate| First Coating (side 2)| Second Coating (side 2)| | | | | | Note | Cycle| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| Ã | 1| 105%| Ã | 8| 8. 4| 80%| Ã | 23| 18. 4| 95%| Ã | 9| 8. 55| 90%| Ã | 9| 8. 1| Ã | 2| 95%| Ã | 9| 8. 55| 80%| Ã | 23| 18. 4| 80%| Ã | 11| 8. 8| 80%| Ã | 10| 8| Ã | 3| 90%| Ã | 10| 9| 90%| Ã | 21| 18. 9| 85%| Ã | 10| 8. 5| 100%| Ã | 8| 8| Ã | 4| 90%| Ã | 10| 9| 120%| Ã | 15| 18| 90%| Ã | 10| 9| 105%| Ã | 7| 7. 35| Ã | 5| 80%| Ã | 11| 8. 8| 105%| Ã | 17| 17. 85| 80%| Ã | 11| 8. 8| 75%| Ã | 11| 8. 5| Ã | 6| 90%| Ã | 10| 9| 75%| Ã | 24| 18| 90%| Ã | 10| 9| 100%| Ã | 8| 8| Ã | 7| 80%| Ã | 11| 8. 8| 110%| Ã | 16| 17. 6| 90%| Ã | 10| 9| 115%| Ã | 6| 6. 9| Ã | 8| 80%| Ã | 11| 8. 8| 80%| Ã | 22| 17. 6| 95%| Ã | 9| 8. 55| 90%| Ã | 9| 8. 1| Ã | 9| 100%| Ã | 9| 9| 75%| Ã | 25| 18. 75| 95%| Ã | 9| 8. 55| 90%| Ã | 9| 8. 1| Ã | 10| 90%| Ã | 10| 9| 105%| Ã | 17| 17. 85| 90%| Ã | 9| 8. 1| 80%| Ã | 10| 8| Summary| Total OT| 99| 203| 98| 87| Rating| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total NT| 88. 35| 181. 35| 86. 85| 78. 8| No. Observations| 10| 10| 10| 10| Average NT| 8. 835| 18. 135| 8. 685| 7. 88| % Allowance| 12%| 12%| 12%| 12%| Elemental Std. Time| 9. 8952| 20. 3112| 9. 7272| 8. 8256| No. of Occurences| 10| 10| 10| 10| Standard Time| 98. 952| 203. 112| 97. 272| 88. 256| Total Standard Time (sum standard time for all elements):| 555| Foreign Elements| Time Check| Allowa nce Summary| Sym| W1| W2| OT| Description| Finishing Time| 10:12:00 AM| Personal Needs| 3| A| 0| 5| 5| check, compare| Starting Time| 8:42:30 AM| Basic Fatigue| 2| B| 0| 73| 73| stuck| Elapsed Time| 89. 5 mins| Variable Fatigue| 3| C| 0| 6| 6| check alignment| TEBS| 0. 7| Ã | Special| 1| D| 0| 6| 6| remove thread| TEAF| 0. 3| | Total Allowance| 9| E| 0| 8| 8| remove thread| Total Check Time| 1| | Remarks:| F| 0| 45| 45| remove thread| Effective Time| 556| | | G| 0| 3| 3| talk| Ineffective Time| 157| | | H| 0| 4| 4| talk| Total Recorded Time| 713| | I| 0| 3| 3| talk| Unaccounted Time| 0| | J| 0| 4| 4| talk| Recording Error %| Ã | | Rating Check| Ã | | Synthetic Time| Ã | Ã | | | Observed Time| Ã | | | | Time Study Observation Form| Study No: 1| Date: March 12, 2010| Page: 2 of 2| | Operation: Silkscreening| Operator:| Observer| Element No. and Description| Katsa Removal from Plate| Ã | Ã | Ã | | | | | | Note | Cycle| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W | OT| NT| Ã | 1| 65%| Ã | 10| 6. 5| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 2| 110%| Ã | 5| 5. 5| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 3| 100%| Ã | 6| 6| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 4| 85%| Ã | 7| 5. 95| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 5| 90%| Ã | 7| 6. 3| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 6| 90%| Ã | 7| 6. | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 7| 100%| Ã | 6| 6| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 8| 95%| Ã | 6| 5. 7| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 9| 75%| Ã | 8| 6| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 10| 90%| Ã | 7| 6. 3| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | | Ã | Ã | Ã | | Ã | Summary| Total OT| 69| Ã | Ã | Ã | Rating| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total NT| 60. 55| Ã | Ã | Ã | No. Observations| 12| Ã | Ã | Ã | Average NT| 6. 055| Ã | Ã | Ã | % Allowance| 12%| Ã | Ã | Ã | Elemental Std. Time| 6. 7816| Ã | Ã | Ã | No. of Occurences| 10| Ã | Ã | Ã | Standard Time| 67. 816| Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Standard Time (sum standard time for all elements):| | Ã | Foreign Elements| Time Check| Allowance Summary| Sym| W1| W2| OT| Description| Finishing Time| Ã | Personal Needs| Ã | A| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Starting Time| Ã | Basic Fatigue| Ã | B| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Elapsed Time| Ã | Variable Fatigue| Ã | C| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | TEBS| Ã | Ã | Special| Ã | D| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | TEAF| Ã | | Total Allowance| Ã | E| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Check Time| Ã | | Remarks:| F| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Effective Time| Ã | | | G| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ineffective Time| Ã | | | H| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Recorded Time| Ã | | I| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Unaccounted Time| Ã | | J| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Recording Error %| Ã | | Rating Check| Ã | | Synthetic Time| Ã | Ã | | | Observed Time| Ã | | | | Bag preparation Time Study Observation Form| Study No: 1| Date: March 12, 2010| Page: 1 of 2| | Operation: Preparation| Operator:| Observer| Element No. and Description| Cut| Burn Edges| Connect Ends/Mark| Marking Body| | | | | | Note | Cycle| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| Ã | 1| 90%| Ã | 14| 12. 6| 90%| Ã | 2| 1. 8| 85%| Ã | 28| 23. 8| 85%| Ã | 171| 145. 4| Ã | 2| 95%| Ã | 13| 12. 35| 80%| Ã | 3| 2. 4| 100%| Ã | 22| 22| 90%| Ã | 164| 147. 6| Ã | 3| 80%| Ã | 16| 12. 8| 110%| Ã | 2| 2. 2| 95%| Ã | 26| 24. 7| 85%| Ã | 172| 146. 2| Ã | 4| 85%| Ã | 14| 11. 9| 100%| Ã | 2| 2| 85%| Ã | 29| 24. 65| 95%| Ã | 153| 145. 4| Ã | 5| 90%| Ã | 13| 11. 7| 105%| Ã | 2| 2. 1| 100%| Ã | 24| 24| 75%| Ã | 193| 144. 8| Ã | 6| 90%| Ã | 14| 12. 6| 70%| Ã | 3| 2. 1| 75%| Ã | 31| 23. 25| 100%| Ã | 145| 145| Ã | 7| 85%| Ã | 15| 12. 5| 100%| Ã | 2| 2| 85%| Ã | 28| 23. 8| 90%| Ã | 155| 139. 5| Ã | 8| 100%| Ã | 13| 13| 95%| Ã | 2| 1. 9| 80%| Ã | 29| 23. 2| 95%| Ã | 156| 148. 2| Ã | 9| 90%| Ã | 14| 12. 6| 95%| Ã | 2| 1. 9| 90%| Ã | 27| 24. 3| 75%| Ã | 196| 147| Ã | 10| 85%| Ã | 15| 12. 75| 70%| Ã | 3| 2. 1| 100%| Ã | 24| 24| 95%| Ã | 155| 147. 3| Summary| Total OT| 141| 23| 268| 1660| Rating| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total NT| 125. 05| 20. 5| 237. 7| 1456. 2| No. Observations| 10| 10| 10| 10| Average NT| 12. 505| 2. 05| 23. 77| 145. 62| % Allowance| 12%| 12%| 12%| 12%| Elemental Std. Time| 14. 0056| 2. 296| 26. 6224| 163. 0944| No. of Occurences| 10| 10| 10| 10| Standard Time| 140. 056| 22. 960| 266. 224| 1630. 944| Total Standard Time (sum standard time for all elements):| 2317| Foreign Elements| Time Check| Allowance Summary | Sym| W1| W2| OT| Description| Finishing Time| 2:35:30 PM| Personal Needs| 3| A| 0| 14| 14| check alignment| Starting Time| 11:02:30 PM| Basic Fatigue| 2| B| 0| 53| 53| fixed katsa, stopped| Elapsed Time| 153 mins| Variable Fatigue| 3| C| 0| 62| 62| talked, stopped| TEBS| 0. 3| Ã | Special| 1| D| 0| 7| 7| blown small fire| TEAF| 0. 4| | Total Allowance| 9| E| 0| 45| 45| fixed katsa| Total Check Time| 0. 7| | Remarks:| F| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Effective Time| 2357| | | G| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ineffective Time| 181| | | H| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Recorded Time| 2538| | I| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Unaccounted Time| 0| | J| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Recording Error %| Ã | | Rating Check| Ã | | Synthetic Time| Ã | Ã | | | Observed Time| Ã | | | | Time Study Observation Form| Study No: 1| Date: March 12, 2010| Page: 2 of 2| | Operation: Preparation| Operator:| Observer| Element No. and Description| Mark Sidings| Ã | Ã | Ã | | | | | | Note | Cycle| R| W| OT| N T| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| Ã | 1| 95%| Ã | 24| 22. 8| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 2| 100%| Ã | 23| 23| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 3| 80%| Ã | 29| 23. 2| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 4| 90%| Ã | 26| 23. 4| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 5| 75%| Ã | 31| 23. 25| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 6| 90%| Ã | 25| 22. | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 7| 85%| Ã | 26| 22. 1| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 8| 75%| Ã | 31| 23. 25| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 9| 100%| Ã | 23| 23| | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 10| 85%| Ã | 27| 22. 95| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Summary| Total OT| 265| Ã | Ã | Ã | Rating| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total NT| 229. 45| Ã | Ã | Ã | No. Observations| 10| Ã | Ã | Ã | Average NT| 22. 945| Ã | Ã | Ã | % Allowance| 12%| Ã | Ã | Ã | Elemental Std. Time| 25. 6984| Ã | Ã | Ã | No. of Occurences| 10| Ã | Ã | Ã | Standard Time| 256. 984| Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Standard Time (sum standard time for all elements):| | Ã | Foreign Elements| Time Check| Allowance Summary| Sym| W1| W2| OT| Description| Finishing Time| Ã | Personal Needs| Ã | A| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Starting Time| Ã | Basic Fatigue| Ã | B| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Elapsed Time| Ã | Variable Fatigue| Ã | C| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | TEBS| Ã | Ã | Special| Ã | D| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | TEAF| Ã | | Total Allowance| Ã | E| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Check Time| Ã | | Remarks:| F| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Effective Time| Ã | | | G| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ineffective Time| Ã | | | H| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Recorded Time| Ã | | I| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Unaccounted Time| Ã | | J| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Recording Error %| Ã | | Rating Check| Ã | | Synthetic Time| Ã | Ã | | | Observed Time| Ã | | | | Sewing Time Study Observation Form| Study No: 1| Date: March 12, 2010| Page: 1 of 2| | Operation: Sewing| Operator:| Observer| Element No. and Description| Attach Strap| Running Stitch| Serge Side| Invert| | | | | | Note | Cycle| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| Ã | 1| 95%| Ã | 161| 153| 70%| Ã | 164| 114. 8| 100%| Ã | 40| 40| 90%| Ã | 9| 8. 1| Ã | 2| 95%| Ã | 156| 148. 2| 75%| Ã | 153| 114. 8| 90%| Ã | 44| 39. 6| 70%| Ã | 11| 7. 7| Ã | 3| 85%| Ã | 172| 146. 2| 85%| Ã | 135| 114. 8| 100%| Ã | 41| 41| 100%| Ã | 8| 8| Ã | 4| 100%| Ã | 153| 153| 75%| Ã | 153| 114. 8| 75%| Ã | 54| 40. 5| 115%| Ã | 7| 8. 05| Ã | 5| 80%| Ã | 193| 154. 4| 115%| Ã | 97| 111. 6| 90%| Ã | 43| 38. 7| 65%| Ã | 12| 7. 8| Ã | 6| 105%| Ã | 145| 152. 3| 85%| Ã | 141| 119. 9| 85%| Ã | 48| 40. 8| 135%| Ã | 6| 8. 1| Ã | 7| 70%| Ã | 200| 140| 110%| Ã | 103| 113. 3| 90%| Ã | 46| 41. 4| 90%| Ã | 9| 8. 1| Ã | 8| 100%| Ã | 156| 156| 75%| Ã | 154| 115. 5| 85%| Ã | 48| 40. | 100%| Ã | 8| 8| Ã | 9| 75%| Ã | 195| 146. 3| 115%| Ã | 103| 118. 5| 90%| Ã | 45| 40. 5| 100%| Ã | 8| 8| Ã | 10| 100%| Ã | 155| 155| 120%| Ã | 88| 105. 6| 80%| Ã | 50| 40| 115%| Ã | 7| 8. 05| Summary| Total OT| 1686| 1291| 459| 85| Rating| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total NT| 1504. 25| 1143. 3| 403. 3| 79. 9| No. Observations| 10| 10| 11| 12| Average NT| 150. 425| 114. 33| 40. 33| 7. 99| % Allowance| 12%| 12%| 12%| 12%| Elemental Std. Time| 168. 476| 128. 0496| 45. 1696| 8. 9488| No. of Occurences| 10| 10| 10| 10| Standard Time| 1684. 760| 1280. 496| 451. 696| 89. 488| Total Standard Time (sum standard time for all elements):| 4866| Foreign Elements| Time Check| Allowance Summary| Sym| W1| W2| OT| Description| Finishing Time| 4:05:50 PM| Personal Needs| 3| A| 0| 4| 4| fixed strap| Starting Time| 2:40:20 AM| Basic Fatigue| 2| B| 0| 4| 4| aligned strap| Elapsed Time| 85. 3 mins| Variable Fatigue| 3| C| 0| 6| 6| fixed strap| TEBS| 1. 8| Ã | Special| 1| D| 0| 12| 12| changed thread| TEAF| 1. 2| | Total Allowance| 9| E| 0| 8| 8| measured fold| Total Check Time| 3| | Remarks:| F| 0| 7| 7| checked stitch| Effective Time| 4888| | | G| 0| 5| 5| fixed thread| Ineffective Time| 52| | | H| 0| 6| 6| stopped| Total Recorded Time| 4940| | I| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Unaccounted Time| Ã | | J| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Recording Error %| Ã | | Rating Check| Ã | | Synthetic Time| Ã | Ã | | | Observed Time| Ã | | | | Time Study Observation Form| Study No: 1| Date: March 12, 2010| Page: 2 of 2| | Operation: Sewing| Operator:| Observer| Element No. and Description| Mark Side| Fold/Hem| Top S titch| Ã | | | | | | Note | Cycle| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| Ã | 1| 95%| Ã | 24| 22. 8| 85%| Ã | 114| 96. 9| 80%| Ã | 156| 124. 8| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 2| 100%| Ã | 23| 23| 95%| Ã | 104| 98. 8| 80%| Ã | 164| 131. 2| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 3| 80%| Ã | 29| 23. 2| 85%| Ã | 116| 98. 6| 85%| Ã | 147| 125| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 4| 85%| Ã | 26| 22. 1| 80%| Ã | 120| 96| 85%| Ã | 152| 129. 2| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 5| 80%| Ã | 30| 24| 85%| Ã | 113| 96. 05| 85%| Ã | 152| 129. 2| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 6| 90%| Ã | 25| 22. 5| 90%| Ã | 109| 98. 1| 90%| Ã | 134| 120. | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 7| 85%| Ã | 26| 22. 1| 95%| Ã | 105| 99. 75| 100%| Ã | 127| 127| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 8| 75%| Ã | 30| 22. 5| 100%| Ã | 101| 101| 100%| Ã | 126| 126| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 9| 105%| Ã | 22| 23. 1| 90%| Ã | 110| 99| 95%| Ã | 134| 127. 3| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 10| 85%| Ã | 27| 22. 95| 90%| Ã | 113| 101. 7| 95%| Ã | 130| 123. 5| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Summary| Total OT| 262| 1105| 1422| Ã | Rating| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total NT| 228. 25| 985. 9| 1263. 75| Ã | No. Observations| 10| 10| 10| Ã | Average NT| 22. 825| 98. 59| 126. 375| Ã | % Allowance| 12%| 12%| 12%| Ã | Elemental Std. Time| 25. 564| 110. 4208| 141. 54| Ã | No. of Occurences| 10| 10| 10| Ã | Standard Time| 255. 640| 1104. 208| 1415. 400| Ã | Total Standard Time (sum standard time for all elements):| | Ã | Foreign Elements| Time Check| Allowance Summary| Sym| W1| W2| OT| Description| Finishing Time| Ã | Personal Needs| Ã | A| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Starting Time| Ã | Basic Fatigue| Ã | B| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Elapsed Time| Ã | Variable Fatigue| Ã | C| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | TEBS| Ã | Ã | Special| Ã | D| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | TEAF| Ã | | Total Allowance| Ã | E| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Check Time| Ã | | Remarks :| F| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Effective Time| Ã | | | G| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ineffective Time| Ã | | | H| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Recorded Time| Ã | | I| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Unaccounted Time| Ã | | J| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Recording Error %| Ã | | Rating Check| Ã | | Synthetic Time| Ã | Ã | | | Observed Time| Ã | | | | Finishing Time Study Observation Form| Study No: 1| Date: March 12, 2010| Page: 1 of 2| | Operation: Finishing| Operator:| Observer| Element No. and Description| Trim| Pack| Ã | Ã | | | | | | Note | Cycle| R| W| OT| NT| R| W| OT| NT| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 1| 105%| Ã | 210| 220. 5| 105%| Ã | 42| 44. 1| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 2| 85%| Ã | 254| 215. 9| 90%| Ã | 52| 46. 8| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 3| 80%| Ã | 271| 216. 8| 75%| Ã | 56| 42| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 4| 90%| Ã | 253| 227. 7| 75%| Ã | 5 9| 44. 25| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 5| 85%| Ã | 260| 221| 95%| Ã | 46| 43. 7| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 6| 85%| Ã | 266| 226. 1| 90%| Ã | 52| 46. 8| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | | Ã | 7| 90%| Ã | 243| 218. 7| 85%| Ã | 54| 45. | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 8| 80%| Ã | 277| 221. 6| 80%| Ã | 54| 43. 2| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 9| 105%| Ã | 212| 222. 6| 95%| Ã | 46| 43. 7| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | 10| 95%| Ã | 237| 225. 2| 100%| Ã | 44| 44| Ã | Ã | | Ã | Ã | Ã | | Ã | Summary| Total OT| 2483| 505| Ã | Ã | Rating| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total NT| 2216. 05| 444. 45| Ã | Ã | No. Observations| 10| 10| Ã | Ã | Average NT| 221. 605| 44. 445| Ã | Ã | % Allowance| 12%| 12%| Ã | Ã | Elemental Std. Time| 248. 1976| 49. 7784| Ã | Ã | No. of Occurences| 10| 10| Ã | Ã | Standard Tim e| 2481. 976| 497. 784| Ã | Ã | Total Standard Time (sum standard time for all elements):| 2980| Foreign Elements| Time Check| Allowance Summary| Sym| W1| W2| OT| Description| Finishing Time| 5:05:45 PM| Personal Needs| 3| A| 0| 11| 11| checked other bags| Starting Time| 4:14:30 PM| Basic Fatigue| 2| B| 0| 5| 5| ribboned twice| Elapsed Time| 51. 15| Variable Fatigue| 3| C| 0| 7| 7| stopped| TEBS| 0. 8| Ã | Special| 1| D| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | TEAF| 0. 7| | Total Allowance| 9| E| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Check Time| 1. 5| | Remarks:| F| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Effective Time| 2978| | | G| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Ineffective Time| 23| | | H| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Total Recorded Time| 3001| | I| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Unaccounted Time| 0| | J| Ã | Ã | Ã | Ã | Recording Error %| Ã | | Rating Check| Ã | | Synthetic Time| Ã | Ã | | | Observed Time| Ã | | | |
Sunday, May 17, 2020
She was born into a family of a long line of royal decedents. She became Queen at the age of twenty four. She was the first women to be on an US commutative coin. Who is this very accomplished person? Queen Isabella. Bold and daring, Queen Isabella accomplished many things in her thirty years of rein as Queen of Castile and Aragon. Queen Isabella was born on April 22, 1451 in Madrigal, Old Castile. Her mother was Isabella of Portugal and her dad was John the II of Castile. Her mom and dad were King and Queen of Castile. She had two brothers, Alfonzo and Henry (Ã¢â¬Å"Isabella of CastileÃ¢â¬ par13). At the age of three IsabellaÃ¢â¬â¢s father died. After his death He4nry became King of Castile. A few years after he was crowned King he sentÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦When they finally got married it stopped many feud between Castile and Argon. For that reason it brought peace to the land (Ã¢â¬Å"Isabella of CastileÃ¢â¬ par1). Five years after their marriage, Henry d ied on December 10, 1474. Days later Isabella became Queen of Castile. Everything was great in Castile and Aragon till FerdinandÃ¢â¬â¢s father died in 1479. Isabella and Ferdinand where then named King and Queen of Aragon (Ã¢â¬Å"Isabella of castileÃ¢â¬ par 18). During their rein as King and Queen they had five children. They had four daughters, Juana, Catherine, Maria, and Isabella. In their life they only had one son, John. Sadly he died at a young age in 1497 (Foster 32). They now had a tough decision for who would be the heir to the throne. After a long while they chose Juana because her son was born on the eve of St. Mathis (Foster 285). Seven years after her son died, Isabella died on November 1504. She died in Medina del Campo due to an unknown reason. Later after her husband died he was laid to rest with her in Alhambra (Ã¢â¬Å"Queen Isabella I par2). Never the less Isabella left this world with accomplishing many things. One of the things she is known for i s the Spanish Inquisition. An Inquisition is a hunt to find non-Christians and convert them or make them leave. Tomas de Torquemada was the person who told Isabella that she could not run a country with religious differences. In order to keep her country strong she reestablished theShow MoreRelatedThe Discovery Of The Bahamas1522 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages As far as I can recall my existing knowledge from kindergarten to high school, Columbus has always been described as a heroic figure who overcame countless obstacles fearlessly and finally found the Ã¢â¬Å"New World.Ã¢â¬ For a long time, there were numerous authors, poets, and painters praising ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s legendary journey and his extraordinary contribution to mankind. However, after reading Ã¢â¬Å"The Discovery of the Bahamas,Ã¢â¬ the sailing logs written by Columbus, I figured that Columbus may not be such a manRead MoreSpain Before the Golden Age: King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella 933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAge? King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella ruled the kingdoms that eventually became the country of Spain. Ferdinand and Isabella were intent on having a kingdom free of any faith other than Christianity. Many people were killed or even banished from the country. King Ferdinand and Isabella moved their kingdom into a great age for Spain, but did not achieve this in the best way. The marriage of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella joined their familyÃ¢â¬â¢s two kingdoms. Queen Isabella was the daughter of KingRead MoreChristopher Columbus : The True Agenda Essay1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesimpossible. After being humiliated and discouraged, Columbus attempted to convince King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain. But after his first meeting with the king and queen of Spain to discuss the journey he wished to make, both the king and queen found themselves with many unanswered questions. Fortunately for Columbus they did not reject his proposal. In fact, it is commonly known that Queen Isabella was rather impressed with ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s presentation and it is believed that she persuaded her husbandRead MoreSpanish Reconquista And The Formation Of Spanish National Identity1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesunderstanding of Spain as it is understood today did not exist. It was because of the Christianisation of the peninsula and the Reconquista that Iberia was reimagine d as something more similar to what we understand today as Spain and Portugal. In this essay I intend to explain how this happened, which historical figures were key to this event and what perception there is today of the whole process and their precursors. The Reconquista is a process of Christianization of the Iberian Peninsula that startedRead MoreChristopher Columbus Seeking a Royal Sponsorship896 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshe was working on. Christopher Columbus managed to escape on an ore, and floated for days until he reached the Portuguese coast. Portugal was the leader of ocean navigation during this time and this was a perfect place for Columbus. In this biography I plan on talking about how Christopher Columbus planned on seeking a royal sponsorship on his outrageous plan to discover a new route to China, but instead he stumbles upon a new world. Now Christopher Columbus is starting to contemplate this ideaRead MoreChristopher Columbus And The Columbus898 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesgrade school, I was taught this rhyme to learn about Christopher Columbus. Most of what I learned about Christopher Columbus then, was that he thought the world was round (and others didnÃ¢â¬â¢t); and that he wanted to sail to India, but messed up, and landed in America, calling the natives Ã¢â¬Å"Indians.Ã¢â¬ As I grew older, I learned a little bit more about ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s trips to the Americas. I was told that Christopher Columbus wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as nice of a person as I was taught when I was younger. I learned that ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreThe Life of Katherine of Aragon1465 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesKatherine of Aragon is famous for being the first of Henry VIIIÃ¢â¬â¢s many wives, the one who fought back and defended her papally sanctioned marriage; the mother of Mary I; and the daughter of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon, founders of the kingdom of EspaÃ ±a. These facts place her in the position of a traditional sixteenth century woman by defining her as wife, mother, and daughter. In these roles, many women have been overlooked as the subject of their own study, and it certainly makesRead MoreColonization of the New World3463 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesclaimed that what he proposed was impossible and after years of disappointment and broken promises he was finally compelled to turn to Spain for provision. He appealed to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. They were intrigued despite all their adviserÃ¢â¬â¢s and seamen s claims that it was impossible. Isabella and Ferdinand desired to break the Italian monopoly on spices and goods from the east and despite being skeptical decided to support the venture. Little did they know at the time the impactRead MoreLiterary Analysis : From Of Plymouth Plantation By Christopher Columbus904 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJournals for example, like Ã¢â¬Å"From Of Plymouth plantationÃ¢â¬ show the reader what the thoughts of the author were at the time of the writing; letters are written with a sense of urgency and a desire for something. The letter written to King Ferdinand and Queen Elizabeth by Christopher Columbus shows the reader how desperate Christopher Columbus is to be freed. Authors who use poems to convey their message are allowed a greater quantity of freedom over the aforementioned types of texts. The use of repetitionRead MoreChristopher Columbus s `` The Harp And The Shadow `` Essay1927 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesHe begins Ã¢â¬Å"The HandÃ¢â¬ chapter immediately with Christopher Columbus on his deathbed, ready to confess the sins he has committed in his lifetime: Ã¢â¬Å"Since I already have one foot in the grave, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll use the time to marshal my thoughts, because IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to have to talk for a long time to say what I have to say, and IÃ¢â¬â¢m more daunted, perhaps, by how much I have experienced than by my illness itselfÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Carpentier 35). Alejo Carpentier harshly makes accusations about Christopher ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s lies to get his
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Catcher in the Rye and The Glass Menagerie The person someone becomes is influenced by the losses they have experienced in their life. In Catcher in the Rye the main character Holden Caulfield is devastated by the loss of his younger brother Allie to leukemia. The loss of Allie never leaves HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. It changes his perception of the world. In The Glass Menagerie Amanda WingfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s husband abandons her and their two children Tom and Laura. For Amanda the only way to deal with the loss is to escape into a dream world. She forces this delusion onto Tom and Laura Loss of anything a loved one, a friend or a cherished possession can affect the way a person feels. Loss can change a personÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions or attitude toward something. ThisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Holden becomes reluctant to change because of AllieÃ¢â¬â¢s death. The loss of Allie was a great change in HoldenÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Allie had always been there. This causes Holden to associate change with negative emotions. As Holden is walking to the Museum of Natural History he begins to recollect memories of the museum. Holden talks about the exhibits of Indians and animals but says the best thing was that the museum stayed the same. No matter how many times you visited it never changed, nobody would have moved or become different. Holden felt that certain things should stay the same. He goes on to say Ã¢â¬Å"you ought to be able to stick them in one of those big glass cases and just leave them aloneÃ¢â¬ . Amanda WingfieldÃ¢â¬â¢s life is turned upside down by her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s departure. In her mind it shatters hope for a future. To cope with this predicament Amanda tries to relive her youth. Once, after eating dinner Amanda mentions how she received seventeen gentlemen callers in Blue Mountain. She boasts that her callers were the most prominent men of Mississippi. Amanda says she knew how to entertain company and that she had a pretty face and a graceful figure. The loss of her husband causes Amanda to develop a dependence on her children. She wants Tom and Laura to become successful. Amanda complains that Tom does not earn enough money at the shoe factory. She wants him to attend night school so he can attain a better career.Show MoreRelatedEssay Prompts4057 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesVenice The Autobiography of An Ex-Colored Man Mrs. WarrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Profession The Awakening PÃ ¨re Goriot Billy Budd The Picture of Dorian Gray Crime and Punishment The Plague Faust Poccho Fences The Scarlet Letter The Glass Menagerie Silas Marner Great Expectations Sister Carrie The Great Gatsby Sula Heart of Darkness The Turn of the Screw Hedda Gabler Typical American 2002 (Form B): Often in literature a characterÃ¢â¬â¢s success in achieving goals dependsRead MoreBrief Survey of American Literature3339 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesÃ¨Å½ ·Ã¥â¦ ¨Ã¥âº ½Ã¥âº ¾Ã¤ ¹ ¦Ã¥ ¥â" Philip Roth (1933- ) Goodbye, Columbus (1959)Ã¨Å½ ·Ã¥â¦ ¨Ã¥âº ½Ã¥âº ¾Ã¤ ¹ ¦Ã¥ ¥â" PortnoyÃ¢â¬â¢s Complaint (1969) The Ghost Writer (1979) The Counterlife (1986)Ã¨Å½ ·Ã¥â¦ ¨Ã¥âº ½Ã¥âº ¾Ã¤ ¹ ¦Ã¦â° ¹Ã¨ ¯âÃ§â¢Å'Ã¥ ¥â" SabbathÃ¢â¬â¢s Theater (1995)Ã¨Å½ ·Ã¥â¦ ¨Ã¥âº ½Ã¥âº ¾Ã¤ ¹ ¦Ã¥ ¥â" American Pastoral (1997) Ã¨Å½ ·Ã¦â¢ ®Ã¥Ë ©Ã§ â"Ã¥ ¥â" J.D. Salinger (1919-2010) The Catcher in the Rye (1951) Ã£â¬Å Ã© º ¦Ã§â °Ã©â¡Å'Ã§Å¡âÃ¥ ®ËÃ¦Å"âºÃ¨â¬â¦Ã£â¬â¹ Native American Writers N. Scott Momady (1934- ), The House Made of DawnÃ£â¬Å Ã¦â¢ ¨Ã¦âº ¦Ã¤ ¹â¹Ã¥ ±â¹Ã£â¬â¹ (1968)Ã¨Å½ ·Ã¦â¢ ®Ã¥Ë ©Ã§ â"Ã¥ ¥â" Leslie Marmon Silko (1948- ), CeremonyÃ£â¬Å Ã¤ » ªÃ¥ ¼ Ã£â¬â¹ (1977) Louise Erdrich (1954- ), Love Medicine (1984)Ã£â¬Å Ã§Ë ±Ã¨ ¯Ã£â¬â¹Ã¥â¦ËÃ¥ Å½Ã¨Å½ ·Ã¥ ¾â"Ã¥Å'â¦Ã¦â¹ ¬Ã¥â¦ ¨Ã¥âº ½Ã¥âº ¾Ã¤ ¹ ¦Ã¨ ¯âÃ¨ ® ºÃ§â¢Å'Ã¥ ¥â"Ã¥Å" ¨Ã¥â â¦Ã§Å¡â5Ã© ¡ ¹Ã¥ ° Ã¨ ¯ ´Ã¥ ¥â" ChineseRead MoreBelonging Essay4112 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesPrichard, Katherine Coonardoo AF Rhys, Jean The wide Sargasso sea AF Rosoff, Meg Just in case YA Rosoff, Meg What I was YA Rushdie, Salman The satanic verses AF Sachar, Louis Holes JF http://www.louissachar.com/HolesBook.htm Salinger, J. D. The catcher in the rye AF YA http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Catcher_in_the_Rye Sartre, Jean Paul Nausea AF Sebold, Alice The lovely bones AF http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lovely_Bones Shields, Carol Unless AF Shriver, Lionel We need to talk about Kevin AF http://www
Britain needed to keep the colonies in their control and they achieved this by passing numerous policies. While, these policies were intended to keep order and limit chaos, their result was the exact opposite. The Navigation Laws, for example, while established for mostly economic reasons, gave British control over trade in the colonies. Although Britain had the power to control trade they did not enforce it until 1763. Another policy Britain passed was the Declaratory Act, immediately after repealing the stamp act. This act allowed parliament to pass any policy without the consent of the colonies. The Coercive Acts or Intolerable Acts as the colonists called them punished the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. These policies interfered with the daily lives of the colonists that they got used to and angered them greatly. Britain imposed these policies to gain political power in the colonies; however, the period of Salutary Neglect left the colonists to govern and manage themselves, and when the lifestyle of the colonists changed as a result of the policies, they resulted in increased revolutionary fervor. We will write a custom essay sample on British Policies Lead to Revolution or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Due to the French and Indian War, Britain had a large debt.In order to overcome this large debt, it passed many policies. The Sugar Act, a tax on imported goods, Stamp Act, a tax on many printed materials, and Tea Act, a tax on tea, are all examples of economic policies imposed on the colonies to gain profit. The colonists for many years traded and farmed for profit, and this worked very smoothly. However, after Salutary Neglect ended, Britain began to impose policies that stole the colonists money, made the colonist pay for products they did not want and documents that should not have any tax.The colonists viewed these polices as unfair and rebelled against this injustice. They did not want to pay taxes to Britain, who ignored them for more than one-hundred years, and all of a sudden began torturing the colonies with harsh policies that might eventually cause them to become poor. An example of the colonists unhappiness toward the taxes is displayed in the Boston Tea Party. The Sons of Liberty dressed up as Indians and attacked and destroyed the tea supply of tea trading vessels.Another display of the colonists unhappiness is when James Otis stated No Taxation without Representation. By this he did not call for representation of the colonies in Parliament, but instead he wanted Britain to Stop interfering with the colonies and its affairs. All of the policies eventually lead to the American Revolution. These economic policies contributed the most to the revolution, because they created the most protest throughout the colonies. Britain treated them very harshly after Salutary Neglect ended. They forced the colonists to commit acts they scorned.The Quartering Act forced the colonists to house any soldiers stationed in the colonies. Many colonists revolted against this act, because it violated their rights guaranteed by the Bill Of Rights 1689. They questioned that since there was not a standing army being kept in the colonies before the French and Indian War, why was a standing army was needed after the French had been defeated. Another example of social oppression was the Intolerable Acts, in which the colonists ere harshly punished for the Boston Tea Party.With these Acts Britain hoped to reverse colonial resistance to Parliamentary authority, however due to the harshness of these acts the resistance only grew. The social oppression that was caused by these acts created even more revolutionary fervor among the colonies, and thus they were also a large contributor to the revolution. Through these harsh laws and policies, Britain hoped to gain a tighter grip on the colonies, but instead they created revolutionary fervor throughout the colonies, and ultimately caused the American Revolution.
Monday, April 20, 2020
Problems Faced by Twitter Trio A twitter is a social internet site, which allows users to send short text messages with a limit of 140 characters. The short messages are called tweets, and a twitter user seeks to have many followers as possible. Twitter users have been faced by many security problems, which is a threat to the Twitter trio.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Privacy Issues and Monetizing Twitter specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some of these problems are caused by links that are found on the twitter page. Some links directs users to unknown destinations. These links have commands for downloads which might destroy an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s or companyÃ¢â¬â¢s data. More so, the links directs a user to malicious userÃ¢â¬â¢s sites. Some cookies are designed to be destructive because when it is saved on the hard disk it destroys useful information or data. According to Ivey (2011), tweets written by users can also be searched using Google. This is a risk because the users feel that their tweets are being followed by investigators and hence they fear expressing their views in detail. Hackers have been able to follow tweets from users, hence hacking passwords and interfering with private information, especially when it leads to a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s sensitive information. Since anyone is able to follow and see what users are commenting, competitors have been able to follow up companyÃ¢â¬â¢s secrets and at times even financial and investors information. Since twitter users accounts enables them to follow other peoples accounts, hackers also create accounts and follows many users, hence the users follow them too without knowing whether the accounts are for malicious use. These malicious people enter the twitter network and seek to damage it as long as they follow thousands of the social network users. As compared to other website accounts like Facebook, when you sign up an account, it is verified through the email address that a user has provided, but when you sign up a Twitter account, it does not verify the account through the email address that has been provided. This has enabled spammers to create some fraudulent networks and accounts on twitter. It is recommended that personal information should not be added on Twitter because people can monitor userÃ¢â¬â¢s activities; there are cases where people have been robbed because of twitting their movements and activities, which led to buglers easily monitoring them. Despite the fact that a tweet is real time, destructive leaks of information about a company or an individual can travel all over the world in just seconds. This can damage a reputation which has been earned for years.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Shelly, Napier, and Rivers (2009) argue that Twitter unlike Facebook has many limitations becaus e it allows a user to upload only one small picture. This is a major challenge to the three partners. Twitters interface is not friendly because when a user signs up for the first time, it is not easy to know what to do next. As compared to other social networks, people struggle to have many followers and hence it creates some competition and it is sometimes not easy for a new user to get followers. It is advisable for a user to consider both advantages and disadvantages before signing up on twitter as a social network. Data Privacy on the Internet and Threat to Privacy Although the Internet has made communication easy with information and other activities meant for entertainment, security about the data storage use in the Internet has become a major concern because it is not easy to tell whether malicious people can access personal information. Other issues are whether the websites visited are safe and how hackers can access a website data. The security threats are a major issue be cause many Internet users have been exposed to security threats. These threats may be instructions that are created by malicious persons and are designed to spread in the internet and cause damages to data on unprotected websites. Hackers access the systems through codes generated by programming operating systems (Laudon Laudon, 2010). Employers are now searching for information about the applicants on Twitter and other social networks without the applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge. Some are disqualified because of posting nude pictures and abusive messages on the social networks. There are cases where an employer rejected some applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s letters because they had posted discriminatory messages about racism. Data on social sites like Twitter and Facebook are difficult to delete, unless there is substantial privileges. There is a time when the President of the United States Barrack Obama warned high school students about what they post on Facebook. The president believes that it is possible to access even deleted data on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s accounts after many years. Many websites like PleaseRobMe has been developed to discourage those who access peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s private data, the hackers might fear that they are being tracked. Data can be altered by malicious persons when being sent from one site to another. Viruses can also be a risk to private data because they can infect a computer. These viruses are passed on by storage devices such as flash disks which affect the networked computers. They are mostly programs which are created by people for destruction purposes.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Privacy Issues and Monetizing Twitter specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Some have ability to replicate many times and clash the network system. These viruses include Trojan horse and spyware. Worms affects the performance of the computer and the system risks losing data. Some of these are meant to tr ack a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s data (Laudon Laudon, 2010). Data loss or privacy violation is either caused by human or machine error. The Internet has made communication easy in organizations whose branches are separated by geographical factors. With all the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s information flowing from one computer to another through the Internet, secure transfer of data is an issue that has not been fully addressed. Companies have failed to protect or monitor their data workflows and it has become susceptible to damage or illegal access. Internet users are also exposed to commercial advertisers when they give their personal information upon filling forms provided by some sites in the internet. The Internet technology has enabled advertisers to analyze and take peoples personal information. Users are usually not aware that their personal information is being accessed as well as unauthorized tracking of internet activities (Stair Reynolds, 2008). Website managers or operators are capable of s toring information about people who have visited the website. There are instances where users are supposed to input their personal information to access the websites. The information is then stored in a database which keeps on recording those who have visited the website. When the userÃ¢â¬â¢s information is profiled without the userÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge, it raises privacy concerns. It is even worse if a company decides to profile employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s health records on their website. When organizations fail to hide their unused data in a correct way, employees and other hackers may access its private information or it might be used in lawsuits. Moreover, shopping at the internet has raised a security concern since users fear that their personal information might be used in corrupt ways. Twitters Legal Requirements Twitter has failed in some of its legal requirements that govern its operations because some of organizations sensitive data such as investors and monetary data have been give n away through tweets (Ivey, 2011). Organizations important information is being leaked through these online tweets. Information such as patients details, which doctors keep on their computers or phones can be stolen and displayed on other social networks like Facebook or Google. Since these mobile phones or computers may not be encrypted, unauthorized persons can easily access data. Likewise, since Twitter is used around the globe, it has faced security privacy issues since each country has its own laws and the extent to which personal data is protected.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More According to Twitter, children under the age of 13 are not allowed to have a Twitter account. However, Twitter has not been able to follow who uses its services, and hence children, even as young as 9 years, are on the social network, which exposes them to dreadful comments from Twitter users. Additionally, Twitter has not been able to manage on who uses their network and it has violated laws that govern the creation of interactive sessions of celebrities where those who join the interactive session can obtain the celebrities private information without consent from the owner. Data mining is a threat to users because Twitter stores personal information without authority from its users, although this has assisted the legal enforcers to get criminals by assessing behavior patterns in a given area. Shelly, Napier, Rivers (2009) suggest that this indicates that Twitter has not been able to secure personal information because they do not have systems that protect access to userÃ¢â¬â¢s data. Ford motor company is an example whose data was hacked. Its data contained customerÃ¢â¬â¢s information such as their account numbers, transactions details and address number. How Customers/Users React to TwitterÃ¢â¬â¢s Proposal to Mine Its ClientsÃ¢â¬â¢ Data Ivey (2011) conforms that although data mining would increase Twitters revenue, customers would not want their data to be mined and especially those who would not like other users to access their private data. Some of the users would quit Twitter and create accounts in other social networks like Facebook, but it is not clear whether data is fully deleted when a user deactivates the account. Like in the case of Facebook, when a user deactivates his/her account, the data is still accessible. However, some may be positive about data mining because some of the userÃ¢â¬â¢s main aim on Twitter is to read other users opinions, facts, and comments. The users can access and read other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings about a given topic, but some of the information might mislead them. Some users will also be able to read information about companies of their interest, especially when doing research. Data mining will be to the advantage of companies or users who are doing business and are customer focused. It will enable them to know the goods mostly consumed by customers because they will be able to access transactional history. According to Stair and Reynolds (2008), data is accessible since it is stored in classes of related groups; for example, in hotels, customer transaction data is recorded to identify the time that customers visit more and what they order most. When data is stored in clusters, it shows similar market sections. It can also be stored in a sequence to guides in customerÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior patterns. For example, Midwest grocery was able to study their customers buying patterns. This company arrived to a conclusion that men came on Thursdays and some on Saturdays to buy diapers and they also bought beer. When the retailer found out those men bought diapers together with beer, they kept the bear close to the diapers on Thursdays and Saturdays. Data mining will also assist the users find financial organizations with loan and credit data. The financial institution can compare its customerÃ¢â¬â¢s qualities and assess the risks of loans granted (Laudon Laudon, 2010). Monetizing Twitter According to the Twitter trio, both Microsoft and Google have many plans to monetize Twitter. They are planning to license TwitterÃ¢â¬â¢s real time search, and the company is hoping to make more money. Google and Microsoft will list billions of tweets, which are posted in monthly basis. Twitter should also come up with profile upgrades. These profiles will attract members who will also pay a fee for the upgrade, and Twitter and its marketers will get monetary gains. Twitter should also increase the number of characters because its limit is 140 words and create more space for photos to att ract more users. This is because many sport fans and other Twitter users are relying on the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s services (Miller, 2010). Twitter should create more room for biographic data or seek assistance from Google since many users prefer amore friendly social site like Facebook, which allows a user to see friendÃ¢â¬â¢s photos and to upload many photos and store them on albums. Ivey (2010) conforms that, just like Google and Yahoo, Twitter should seek to become a search engine. It will earn money when customers search for services and products. When, for example, a Twitter user posts a question about where to get a certain commodity, followers will reply while also informing others who might want to buy such commodities in future. Twitter should also include tweets for job search, whereby the users are capable of posting their resumes. When users pay a fee to access the vacancies available and post resumes, it would earn Twitter more money. Similarly, employers looking for peopl e to recruit should pay a fee to access the posted information from job seekers. It should also create and manage sites for outsourcing tasks where it creates jobs for online who may work in groups or as individuals. Furthermore, Twitter should take advantage of getting peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s comments on a certain company; for example, performance and what the customers like or dislike. This will assist the company to get customersÃ¢â¬â¢ feedback about certain products and decide on improvements. The companies will be able to improve and change their products and services according to the customers needs and hence the companies should pay a fee to twitter for the service. Likewise, Twitter should come up with an advertising strategy for companies. These companies may be charged on monthly basis or after 3 months. Individual users can also make money in Twitter by posting advertisements, especially when a user has many followers. A user can also search on advertisements and link them to f ollowers who are interested in buying. Promotion is another way to make money where a user can promote upcoming products for a company to the followers. Options That the Trio Have The partners have an option to store userÃ¢â¬â¢s personal information, which will improve their competitive advantage. They want to come up with a big archive of userÃ¢â¬â¢s data. This will only be successful if they make sure that they have mined data with consent from users. Google and Microsoft has given permission to Twitter to post its tweets at the Google search, this will be easy for users searching for certain information. Users will benefit from real time messages and latest news. Twitter attracts many users on the Google search. They have also come up with data mines that are likely to increase revenue on twitter because psychologists and other researchers will be able to get information, especially on behavior patterns of human beings. They will encourage peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s participation by not including their names, but only taking helpful information particularly for research purposes without including the names. Twitter has also increased its income by making an agreement with Google and Microsoft to make it easy to search a blog service on the Internet. The company has been able to discuss with telecommunications sector to lower the costs and this will benefit twitter because it will increase its profitability (Ivey, 2011). Twitter has another plan of archiving userÃ¢â¬â¢s information. Users have responded negatively, but the company has assured them safety of data. The users fear is that their tweets could be used against them. Twitter trio should come up with a plan to ensure that even if they archive the information, the government or any other party will not interfere with it because users might think that FBI is following them. Microsoft has started Microsoft helps, which is a twitter tool that supports users through information on Windows 7. This real time inf ormation will be checked by Microsoft while also supporting customers. Using Twitter, customers are capable of accessing help online and in real time. They will also be able to bring about issues or problems encountered when using Windows 7. However, there are privacy concerns for the trio because the crackers are out to destroy data, especially when mining. SalesForce is an example of a company that allowed businesses to access conversations on Twitter and take important information. If a customer has a question about computers, SalesForce informs computer companies about the client. The partners, being highly supported by Google, are coming up with ways that will enable users to protect their personal data. Some users on Twitter are exposed to cookies, which direct them to unknown sites. Twitter users can no longer trust the company because it is not able to protect the usersÃ¢â¬â¢ data. Both Microsoft and Google are supporting Twitter in its real-time messaging. Users have conf essed that they get many insights from other users since it involves sharing with different users around the globe. Twitter may provide information not found on Google because it involves asking more people and the network in real-time. Google has not been successful in creating interactive sessions like twitter. In case of any latest news such as plane crush, Twitter displays them in real time while Google may take some hours. Both Google and Twitter are working together to improve on their business model. Twitter is a poor search engine; Google has decided to post its tweets since Google is poor on social matters, and hence it has considered having tweets so that users can see real time comments. Combining of the two features that mainly focuses on search micro-blogging and messaging services found in these social networks will increase their monetary value. In essence, Twitter is turning out to be a place where users do business and it is increasingly growing in ecommerce because as users follow each other on their accounts, it is easy to promote products and services. It has been greatly favored because of its real-time characteristic, and this is a blessing to the Twitter trio. References Biskup, J. (2009). Security in Computer Systems, Challenges, Approaches and Solutions. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Ivey. (2011). Privacy Issues and Monetizing Twitter. London: Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation, 2011-04-15. 9B11E002. Laudon, K.C., Laudon, J.P. (2010). Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm (11th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Miller, C. C. (2010, June 18). Sports Fans Break Records on Twitter. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/06/18/sports-fans-break-records-on-twitter/?mtrref=undefinedgwh=993DB9C58627C72733D0FB968A58745Dgwt=pay Shelly, G.B., Napier, H.A, Rivers, O. (2009). Discovering the Internet: Complete Concepts and Techniques (3rd ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning, Inc. Stair, R. Re ynolds, G. (2008). Fundamentals of Information Systems (5th ed.). Hamilton, CA: Thomson Course Technology. This essay on Privacy Issues and Monetizing Twitter was written and submitted by user Nyla Glenn to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Econ of Black Comm Dev. Davis-Bacon Act Debate Essays - Free Essays 1.Defender ~ Olivia Lewis 2.Detractor ~ Tawndy 3.Moderator/Scribe ~Taylor Walker September 3, 2015 Econ of Black Community Development 788 Davis-Bacon Act Debate For/DefenderAgainst/Detractor Group 1 Debate/ DiscussionI am in support of the Davis-Bacon Act, as workers in cities are facing unemployment as a result of the ability for manufacturers to simply lower wages and bring in new workers. Benefits all workers Fair, deserved pay, fair competition Force companies to hire unionized workers oProvides proper protection of workers Set wage oAllows laborers to afford expenditures in the city Improve work morale Creates equity in the work placeI am in opposition of the Davis-Bacon Act, contractors and subcontractors are performing on federally funded or assisted contracts in excess of $2000 for construction, alteration, or repair of public buildings, or public works. Racist origins oAuthor was racist Lest immigration upset nations racial status quo oKeeps blacks from competition w/ ununionized white workers oAct passed with the intention of preventing non-unionized and immigrant laborers from competing with unionized white workers for scarce jobs during the Great Depression Currently, has devastating impact Nonunionized black workers are underrepresented in highly unionized skilled trades and over represented in pool of unskilled workers Restricts economic opportunities of low-income individuals oMinority contracting firms are often small, non-unionized, & cant pay prevailing wage Requires contractors to pay unskilled laborers prevailing wage for any job performed oForces contractors to hire skilled tradesmen Selecting workers from pool dominated by whites Creates barrier for unskilled o/ low-skilled workers Low income blacks cannot reap the benefits of the well paid construction industry
Friday, February 28, 2020
Immigration & Ownership under EB5 - Essay Example Many of those families are facing the threat of deportation, while many troubled companies that were promised a boost from immigrant investors have closed their doors, leaving hundreds of workers unemployed"( Roche and Cohn, Cashing In: Immigration Official Insiders Siphon Millions Selling Green Cards To Wealthy Foreigners, Baltimore Sun).2 The impetus for the visa program came from a similar strategy in Canada that attracted millions of dollars from wealthy Hong Kong residents who looked elsewhere to settle when Britain announced that Hong Kong would merge with mainland China (We take a look at the Canadian Business Immigration Visa later in the paper).This made the American think-tank devise a strategy to lure the wealthy from around the globe to invest in the national coffer, which was suffering through an economic downturn. (Roche and Cohn, America for Sale, Cashing In: Immigration Official Insiders Siphon Millions Selling Green Cards to Wealthy Foreigners, Baltimore Sun)3. America was also looking to lure the wealthy from Hong Kong who dreaded the idea of living under communist rule in 1997. The response was lukewarm considering that this plan was patterned after highly successful programs in other countries, especially Canada and Australia. Canada's program, which began in 1986, had brought in more than $3 billion a year and created more than 40,000 jobs, which Canadian officials said was a real success. Australia, anticipating an exodus from Hong Kong brought forward their program a lot earlier. The program, begun in 1982, brought in $1.3 billion in new investment with about 10,000 settlers coming mostly from Asia, according to the Australian Embassy. There was animosity and revolt against this move to bring in settlers for a paltry sum of $1 million. Said Sen. Dale.Bumpers (D-Ark.), "allowing somebody into this country simply because he or she happens to have $1 million, either inherited, made in the drug cartel, regardless of where the money comes from" is nothing short of "selling of our souls". "One million dollars is not chump change," said St. Louis immigration lawyer George Newman. "People with that kind of money didn't get it because they are idiots," he said, and they are not going to jump into the program without a clear idea of what will happen, sums up the mood in the immigration section of INS (Al Kamen, An Investment In American Citizenship, Sep.29, 1991, The Washington Post)4. The EB-5 Immigrant Investor Visa (Pre- This is the story of Kenneth Carlsson, a man who brought with him all the wealth that he could amass to start an American dream. He, like a million before him, sought to make the United States his home. Kenneth banked on the investor visa program that was on offer for foreigners who desired to come here and invest U.S $500,000 - $1,000,000. This was seen as an avenue for the rich to walk into this country, invest in a business that would offer employment to a minimum of 10 and would